India’s coal mining plan undermines climate goals | Science

Carbon neutrality depends on the reduction of fossil fuel usage and the development of renewable energy (1, 2). At the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26), India signed an agreement to reduce coal and enhance its renewable energy capacity to 500 GW by 2030, with the goal of achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2070 (3, 4). As the world’s third-largest producer of coal and fourth-largest greenhouse gas emitter, India was expected to play an important role in global mitigation efforts (5). However, in November 2023, the country approved a plan to increase coal production (6), undermining national and global environmental goals.

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